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Planning and Regulation
In Denmark, the local municipalities determine where wind turbines can be placed. However, there are some rules and regulations that have to be complied with, before a wind farm can be erected in the Danish landscape. The regulation related to wind turbines includes planning, building and nature protection legislation, as well as noise and grid connection regulation.
Set back distance and noise
The most central legislation on wind turbines establishes a requirement for a setback distance of 4 x total height of the wind turbine. To major roads and railways a distance of 1 x total height is required. In addition, specific noise limits determine allowable noise-levels for neighboring houses at different levels of wind speed. The noise limits are outdoors limits and must not exceed:
• In residential areas:
39 dB (wind speeds of 8 m/s) and 37 dB (wind speeds of 6 m/s)
• Near residences in the open country:
44 dB (wind speeds of 8 m/s) and 42 dB (wind speeds of 6 m/s)
For both categories of areas the limit for low frequency noise is 20 dB. The limit for low frequency noise applies to the calculated indoor noise level at both 6 and 8 m/s wind speed.
The Danish requirements related to wind turbines normally also include a limit on the annual number of hours that neighboring houses are affected by shadow flicker from turbines. It is recommended that the calculated average of shadow hours on neighboring houses do not exceed 10 hours per year. If the shadow limit is exceeded the wind turbine owner may alternatively be required to shut down the wind turbine in critical periods. Usually, wind turbines can be fitted with meters so that the operation can be halted if the sun shines during critical periods.
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